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Gasoline direct injection: The fuel economy concept for EU IV emission regulation
Published July 13, 1999 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The high potential for fuel economy of Gasoline Direct Injection can only partially be utilized within the constraints of current or future emission legislation like EURO III/IV. Instead of an expected improvement of 20-25% currently only 10% can be obtained considering the limitations of high volume production. In addition, the expenses both for the system itself as well as for the respective development are largely underestimated. An analysis of the potential that is not yet utilized reveals various influencing parameters, but also concrete measures for further improvement. Assuming the availability of low sulfur fuel also in Europe, a fuel economy potential of roughly 15% even under EURO IV constraints can be expected. The long-term durability of the DeNOx exhaust gas aftertreatment system still has to be proven.
The application of GDI Technology clearly favors the combination with other fuel efficient technologies like downsizing by turbocharging or variable effective compression ratio by intake phase shifting. As GDI technology improves some deficiencies of these technologies it can be expected that the predicted fuel economy potential of up to 25% combined with advantage in transient response and driveability can be experienced in real customers'' use. Regarding production aspects, an attractive design strategy for integrated production of engines with gasoline DI as well as MPFI fuel economy concepts can be achieved.