This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Measurement of Instantaneous Flamelet Surface Normals and the Burning Rate in a SI Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 25, 1999 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A recently developed technique, crossed-plane imaging, is extended to measure instantaneous flamelet surface normals in a single-cylinder, optical SI engine. Two simultaneous, orthogonal acetone PLIF images are used to measure the instantaneous flamelet orientation in three dimensions. The images are also used to measure contours of constant mean reaction progress variable < c> and the mean flamelet crossing density. Statistics of the flamelet surface normal are presented in spherical coordinates in terms of a polar angle, f, and an azimuthal angle,q; the pole is aligned with the normal to a <c> constant surface. The data are used to estimate marginal probability density functions (PDF's) in f and q. The estimated marginal PDF's are found to be well represented by the same functional forms applied previously to turbulent V-flames. The flamelet surface density and the mean fractional increase in flamelet surface area due to turbulence are also estimated. From the flamelet surface density estimates, the mass burning rate is calculated by integration of the volumetric mean rate of creation of products <w> over the cylinder volume. The burning rate is also estimated with a thermodynamic model based on the cylinder pressure/volume history. Burning rates estimated with the thermodynamic model are systematically lower than burning rates estimated by taking the volume integral of <w>, which suggests that stretch, strain, curvature and unsteadiness are important effects for these flames, and can substantially reduce the flamelet combustion rates.
CitationKnaus, D., Gouldin, F., Hinze, P., and Miles, P., "Measurement of Instantaneous Flamelet Surface Normals and the Burning Rate in a SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3543, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-3543.
SAE 1999 Transactions - Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V108-4 ; Published: 2000-09-15
Number: V108-4 ; Published: 2000-09-15
- Matthews, R. D., Hall, M. J., Dai, W., Davis, G. C., “Combustion Modeling in SI Engines with a Peninsula-Fractal Combustion Model,” SAE Paper 960072, 1996.
- Bray, K. N. C., and Peters, N., “Laminar Flamelets in Turbulent Flames”, in Turbulent Reacting Flows, eds. Libby P. A. and Williams F. A., Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 63-113, 1993.
- Blumberg, P.N., LaVoie, G.A., and Tabaczynski, R.J., “Phenomenological Models for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., Vol. 5, pp123-167, 1979.
- James, E.H., “Further Aspects of Combustion Modelling in Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Paper 900684, 1996.
- Weller, H.G., Marooney, C.J., and Gosman, A.D., “A New Spectral Method for Calculation of the Time-Varying Area of a Laminar Flame in Homogeneous Turbulence,” Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 629-636, 1990.
- Wallesten, J., Lipatnikov, A.N., and Nisbet, J., “Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model: Further Development and Implementation for 3-D Simulation of Combustion in SI Engine,” SAE Paper 982613, 1998.
- Wirth, M., Keller, P., and Peters, N., “A Flamelet Model for Premixed Purbulent Combustion in SI-Engines,” SAE Paper 932646, 1993.
- Khalighi, B., El Tahry, S.H., Haworth, D.A., and Huebler, M.S., “Computation and Measurement of Flow and Combustion in a Four-Valve Engine with Intake Variations,” SAE Paper 950287, 1995.
- Bray, K.N.C., and Libby, P.A., “Passage Times and Flamelet Crossing Frequencies in Premixed Turbulent Combustion,” Combust. Sci. and Tech., Vol. 47, pp. 253-274, 1986.
- Bray, K.N.C., Champion, M., and Libby, P.A., “Mean Reaction Rates in Premixed Turbulent Flames,” Twenty-second Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 763-769, 1988.
- Gouldin, F. C., “Analysis of Certain Algebraic Closure Models for Premixed Turbulent Combustion”, in Physical and Chemical Aspects of Combustion: A Tribute to Irvin Glassman, Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, pp. 433-459, 1997.
- Cant, R.S., Pope, S.B., and Bray, K.N.C., “Modelling of Flamelet Surface-to-Volume Ratio in Turbulent Premixed Combustion,” Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 809-815, 1990.
- Choi, C.R., and Huh, K.Y., “Development of a Coherent Flamelet Model for a Spark-Ignited Turbulent Premixed Flame in a Closed Vessel,’ Comb. And Flame, v.114, Nos. 3-4, pp.336-348, 1998.
- Delhaye, B. and Cousyn, B., “Computation of Flow and Combustion in Spark Ignition Engine and Comparison with Experiment,”, SAE Paper 961960, 1996.
- Bingham, D. C., Gouldin, F. C., Knaus, D. A., “Crossed-Plane Laser Tomography: Direct Measurements of the Flamelet Surface Normal”, Twenty-seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 77-84, 1998.
- Bingham, D. C., “Crossed-Plane Laser Tomography: Direct Measurement of Flamelet Orientation and Mean Flamelet Surface Density”, M.S. thesis, Cornell University, 1998.
- Knaus, D. A., Gouldin, F. C., Bingham D. C., “Assessment of Crossed-Plane Tomography for Flamelet Surface Normal Measurements”, submitted to Combustion Science and Technology.
- Boyer, L., “A Laser Tomographic Study of a Laminar Flame in a Kármán Vortex Street”, Combustion and Flame 39: 321, 1980.
- Smallwood, G. J., Deschamps, B. M., “Flame Surface Density Measurements with PLIF in an SI Engine”, SAE Paper 962088, 1996.
- Cheung, H. M., Heywood, J. B., “Evaluation of a One-Zone Burn-Rate Analysis Procedure Using Production SI Engine Pressure Data,” SAE Paper 932749.
- Dagaut, P. Cathonnet, M., Boettner, J. C. and Gaillard, F., “Kinetic Modeling of Propane Oxidation”, Combustion Sci. and Tech., Vol. 56, pp. 23-63, 1987.
- Metghalchi, M. and Keck, J.C., “Laminar Burning Velocity of Propane-Air Mixtures at High Tempeerature and Pressure,” Combustion and Flame, Vol. 38, pp. 143-154, 1980.
- Castleman, K. R., Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1996.
- Arcoumanis, C., Bae, C.S., and Hu, Z., “Flow and Combustion in a Four-Valve, Spark-Ignition Optical Engine,” SAE Paper 940475, 1995.
- Trouvé, A. and Poinsot, T., “The Evolution Equation for the Flame Surface Density in Turbulent Premixed Combustion,” J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 278, pp.1-31, 1994.
- Gouldin, F. C. and Miles, P. C., “Chemical Closure and Burning Rates in Premixed Turbulent Flames”, Combustion and Flame 100: 202-210, 1995.
- Bray, K. N. C., Cant, R. S., “Some Applications of Kologorov's Turbulence research in the Field of Combustion”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 434, pp. 217-240, 1991.
- Bray, K. N. C., Peters, N., “Laminar Flameelts in Turbulent Flames”, in Turbulent Reacting Flows, Eds. Libby, P. A., Williams, F. A., Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 63-113, 1994.