This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection Part I - Fuel System Deposits and Vehicle Performance
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 03, 1999 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection and two with port fuel injection engines, were tested in 20,100 km intervals to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant on vehicle deposits and emissions, acceleration and driveability performance. The program showed that engine fuel system deposits, including specifically those on intake valves, combustion chambers and injectors are formed in higher amounts in the GDI engine than the PFI engine. The fuel additive used reduced injector deposits and combustion chamber deposits in the GDI, but had no significant effect on intake valve deposits, which are affected by crankcase oil formulation. In GDI vehicles, deposited engines were found to have increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions and poorer fuel economy and acceleration, but lower particulate emissions. Effects in PFI engines were directionally the same for NOx and particulates but the opposite for HC and CO emissions and fuel economy. In terms of specific deposit effects in the GDI engine, CCD is correlated with poorer acceleration, HC and CO emissions, while injector deposits correlate with NOX formation.
CitationArters, D., Bardasz, E., Schiferl, E., and Fisher, D., "A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection Part I - Fuel System Deposits and Vehicle Performance," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1498, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-1498.
SAE 1999 Transactions - Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V108-4; Published: 2000-09-15
Number: V108-4; Published: 2000-09-15
- Iwamoto, Y. Noma, K Nakayama, O. Yamauchi, T. Ando, H. “Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE 970541
- Harada, J. Tomita, T. Mizuno, H. Mashiki, Z. Ito, Y. “Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine,” SAE 970540
- Okada, Y. Inokuchi, I. Yanagisawa, M. “Development of a High-Pressure Fueling System for a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine,” SAE 981458
- Karl, G. Kemmler, M. Bargende, M. Abthoff, J. “Analysis of a Direct Injected Gasoline Engine,” SAE 970624
- Yang, J. Anderson, R. “Fuel Injection Strategies to Increase Full-Load Torque Output of a Direct-Injection SI Engine,” SAE 980495
- MacDuff, M. Wall, S. Arters, D. Bardasz, E. Shiferl, E. “A Comparison of Fuel System Deposits and Lubricant Performance in Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles.” 2nd International Fuels Colloquium Technische Akademie Esslingen Germany 20-21 Jan. 1999
- CRC Cold Start and Warmup Driveability Procedure,” Coordinating Research Council 1994
- Code of Federal Regulations 40CFR Part 86
- Hochhauser, A.M. et. al. “The Effect of Aromatics, MTBE, Olefins and T90 on Mass Exhaust Emissions from Current and Older Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program,” SAE 912322
- Marple, V.A. Rubo, D.L. Behm, S.M. “A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI): Description, Calibration and Use,” Aerosol Science and Technology 14 434 446 1991
- “Standard Test Method for Vehicle Evaluation for Unleaded Automotive Spark Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation,” 1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards 05 03 1998
- “Standard Test Method for Evaluating Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electronic Port Fuel Injector Fouling,” 1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards 05 03 1998
- CRC CCD-Emissions Committee “Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Combustion Chamber Deposit/Emissions Study - Data and Data Analysis,” 7 1 98