This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 01, 1999 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper discusses the development of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics software, NADSdyna. Recursive rigid body formalism called the Real Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD) developed by the University of Iowa is used to model the front and rear suspension mechanisms. To complement vehicle dynamics for simulator applications, subsystems that include tires, aerodynamics, powertrain, brake, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. These models provide high fidelity driving realism to simulate severe handling maneuvers in real time. The soundness of the model does not only depend on the mathematics of the model, but also on the validity of the parameters. Therefore, this paper discusses thoroughly the methodology of parameters estimation. A generic model of cruise control is included. All these subsystems complemented with rigid-body models of the front and rear suspensions constitute a comprehensive fundamental vehicle dynamics model for NADS.
CitationSalaani, M., Guenther, D., and Heydinger, G., "Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0121, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-0121.
- Haug, E. J., et al., “Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design of a National Advanced Driving Simulator,” Report No. DOT-HS-807-597, March 1990.
- Salaani, M. K., “Development and Validation of a Vehicle Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator,” Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1996.
- Salaani, M. K., Chrstos, J. P., Guenther, D. A., “Parameter Measurement and Development of a NADSdyna Validation Data Set for a 1994 Ford Taurus,” SAE Paper 970564, February 1997.
- Salaani, M.K., “Powertrain and Brake Modeling of the 1994 Ford Taurus for the National Advanced Driving Simulator,” SAE 981190, February 1998.
- NADS Vehicle Dynamics Simulation, Release 4.0, Center for Computer-Aided Design, National Advanced Driving Simulator, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
- Segel, L., “An Overview of Developments in Road-Vehicle Dynamics: Past, Present, and Future,” Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Automobile Division 1993.
- Bae, D.S., and Haug, E.J., “A Recursive Formulation for Constrained Mechanical Systems, Part I Open Loop,” Mechanics of Structures and Machines, Vol. 15, No.3, pp. 359-382, 1987.
- Bae, D.S., and Haug, E.J., “A Recursive Formulation for Constrained Mechanical Systems, Part II Closed Loop,” Mechanics of Structures and Machines, Vol. 15, No.4, 1987.
- Tsai, F.F., and Haug, E.J., “Automated Methods for High Speed Simulation for Multi-body Dynamic Systems,” Technical Report R-47, Center for Computer Aided Design, The University Of Iowa, 1989.
- Salaani, M. K., Heydinger, G. J., Guenther, D. A., ℌValidation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulations,” SAE Paper 970565, February 1997
- Heydinger, G.J., “Vehicle Inertia Measurement Facility, Suspension Kinematics and Compliance, Shock Absorber, and Suspension Component Geometric and Inertia Measurement for 1997 Jeep Cherokee Sport,” Final Report Contract DTNH22-97-P-08122s, SEA Inc., 7349 Worthington-Galena Rd., Columbus, Ohio 43085, July 1997.
- Fancher, P.S., Ervin, R.D., MacAdam, C.C., and Winkler, C.B., “Measurement and Representation of Mechanical Properties of Truck Leaf Springs,” SAE Paper 800905.
- Cebon, D., “Simulation of the Response of Leaf Springs to Board Band Random Excitation,” Vehicle Systems Dynamics, V. 15, 1986, pp. 375-392.
- Jim Bernard, and Chris Clover, “Tire Modeling for Low-speed and High-Speed Calculations,” SAE Paper 950311, February 1995.
- Lee, S. W., “Development of New Dynamic Tire Model For Improved Vehicle Dynamics Simulation,” Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1994.
- Allen, R. W., Rosenthal, T. J and Chrstos, J. P., “A vehicle Dynamics Tire Model for Both Pavement and Off-Road Conditions,” SAE Paper 970559, February 1997.
- Pottinger, M. G., “Flat-Track II Machine helps in Tire Force Moment Measuring,” Rubber and Plastic News, March 19, 1990.
- Grover, P.S., “Modeling of rolling resistance,” February 1998, SAE Paper 980251.
- “Vehicle Aerodynamics Terminology,” SAE Recommended Practice, SAE J1594 JUN87, SAE Handbook, V.4, 1991.
- Brown, L.P., “Low speed wind tunnel test to measure six-component balance data on a 1997 Jeep Cherokee 4×4,” Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems, Marietta Georgia, July 1997.
- Users Manual -Low Speed Wind Tunnel, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company, January, 1989.
- Bergman, W., “Effects of Compliances on Vehicle Handling Properties,” SAE Paper 700369, International Automobile Safety Conference Compendium, P-30, pp. 226-235, February 1970.
- Haug, Edward J., Computer-Aided Kinematics and Dynamics Of Mechanical Systems. Volume I: Basic Methods, Needham Heights, MA, Allyn and Bacon, 1989.
- Clark, Samuel K., Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires, National Bureau of Standards Contract CST-386, U.S. Department of Commerce, November 1971.
- Allen, R. W., Rosenthal, T.J. and Szostak, H.T., “Analytical Modeling of Driver Response in Crash Avoidance Maneuvering,” DOT-HS-807-270, Systems Technology, Inc., April 1988.
- Allen, R. W., “Vehicle Dynamic Stability and Rollover,” NHTSA DTNH 22-88-C-07384, Systems Technology, Inc., January 1991.
- Haug, E. J., Intermediate Dynamics, Prentice Hall, 1990.
- Riley, W. G., et al., “Methodology for Validating the National Advanced Driving Simulator's Vehicle Dynamics (NADSdyna),” SAE Paper 970562, February 1997.
- Segal, L., “On the Lateral Stability and Control of the Automobile as Influenced by the Dynamics of the Steering Systems,” Journal of Engineering for Industry, Trans. of ASME, pp. 283-295, 1966.
- Kortum, W., and Schiehlen, W., “General Purpose Vehicle System Dynamics Software Based on Multi-body Formalisms,” Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 14, pp. 229-263, 1985.
- Norman, K. N., and Giannopoulos, F., “Recent Advances and Computational Aspects of Modeling Active and Passive Vehicle Suspensions,” Computational Methods in Ground Transportation Vehicles, Vol. 50, ASME, 1982, PP. 75-115.
- Orlandea, N., and Chace, M., A., “Simulation of a Vehicle Suspension with the ADAMS Computer Program,” SAE paper 770053, February 1977.
- Herbert, L., and Dodlbacher, G., “A Mathematical “Prototype” of the Vehicle To Describe Vehicle Handling Behavior,” Vehicle System Dynamics.
- Rai, N.S., Solomon, A. R., and Angell, J.C., “Computer Simulation of Suspension Abuse Tests Using ADAMS,” SAE paper 820079, February 1982.
- Segel, L., and Lang, H. H., “The Mechanics of Automotive Hydraulic Dampers at High Stroking Frequencies,” Vehicle Systems Dynamics, Vol. 10, pp. 79-83, 1981.
- Antoun, R. J., Hackert, P.B., O'Leary M. C., and Sitchin A., “Vehicle Dynamic Handling Computer Simulation - Model Development, Correlation, and Application Using ADAMS,” SAE Paper 860574, February 1986.
- Chase, M.A., “Methods and Experience in Computer Aided Design of Large-Displacement Mechanical Systems,” NATO-NSF-ARO Advanced Study Institute On Computer Aided Analysis and Optimization Of Mechanical System Dynamics, August 1983, pp. 223-256.
- Wehage, R.A., Haug, E.J., “Generalized Coordinate Partitioning of Dimension Reduction in Analysis of Constrained Dynamic Systems,” Trans. ASME, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 104, January 1982, pp. 247-255.
- Ahmed, S. R., Gawthorpe, R. G., and Mackrodt, P. A., “Aerodynamics of Road and Rail Vehicles,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 14, pp. 319-392, 1985.
- Greenberg, J. A., and Park, J. T., “The Ford Driving Simulator,” SAE Paper 940176, February 1994.
- Ramano, R. A., Stoner, J. W., and Evans, D. F., “Real Time Vehicle Dynamics Simulation: Enabling Tool for Fundamental Human Factors Research,” SAE paper 910237, February 1991.
- Allen, R. W., and Rosenthal, T. J., “Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Models,” SAE Paper 940175, February 1994.
- Freeman, J. S., et al., “The Iowa Driving Simulator: An Implementation and Application Overview,” SAE Paper 950174, February 1995.
- 22. Starkey, J. M., “The effects of Vehicle Design Parameters on Handling Frequency Response Characteristics,” International Journal Of Vehicle Design, Vol. 14, No. 5/6, pp. 497-510, 1993.
- Sayers, M. W. and Mousseau, C.W., “Real-Time Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Obtained With a Symbolic Multi-body Program,” Advanced Automotive Technologies Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, 1991.
- Miliken, W. F., Miliken, D. L., Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1995
- Gillespie, T. D., Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1992.
- Garrott, R., Scott, R. A., “Improvement of Mathematical Models for Simulation of Vehicle Handling,” V.7: Technical Manual for the General Simulation, Report No: DOT-HS-805-370.