Complex Assessment of Fuel Efficiency and Diesel Exhaust Toxicity
Problems of reducing emissions of harmful substances and fuel consumption of the engine are interrelated, since they are mainly determined by the work process. Measures aimed to reducing fuel consumption cause changes, often upwards, toxic compound formation. The fuel and environmental criterion is proposed taking into account the engine operating conditions for a reasonable choice of technical solutions for the comprehensive improvement of fuel economy and toxic level indicators of the exhaust gases. This criterion allows assessing the effectiveness of solutions to improve combustion efficiency, the use of alternative fuels, exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, and other measures. Calculation and analysis of the comprehensive criterion calculation results allows determining the operation modes, for which the fuel cost and compensation for the environmental pollution damage are the most significant, purposefully develop measures aimed to improving the engine quality, evaluating efficiency when using alternative fuels or exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. A model of truck diesel engine operation is proposed. An analysis of evaluation of truck diesel engine efficiency on alternative fuels was carried out as an example of the use of a comprehensive fuel and environmental criteria. It was demonstrated that the application of dimensionless comprehensive criterion allowed giving a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of the alternative fuels usage in the automobile diesel engine. The research and calculation results showed that the water-fuel emulsion is the most effective alternative fuel for the automobile diesel engine. This is due to a simultaneous reduction of exhaust gas toxicity and fuel consumption.