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Real-Sim Interface: Enabling Multi-resolution Simulation and X-in-the-Loop Development for Connected and Automated Vehicles
ISSN: 2574-0741, e-ISSN: 2574-075X
Published June 27, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Shao, Y., Deter, D., Cook, A., Wang, C. et al., "Real-Sim Interface: Enabling Multi-resolution Simulation and X-in-the-Loop Development for Connected and Automated Vehicles," SAE Intl. J CAV 5(4):327-339, 2022, https://doi.org/10.4271/12-05-04-0026.
Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) can bring safety, mobility, and energy benefits to transportation systems. Ideally, CAV applications would be fully evaluated and validated prior to real-world implementation. However, many technical challenges in both software and hardware hinder the process. To comprehensively evaluate all aspects of CAV applications, an integrated evaluation environment is needed with various simulation tools from different domains. In the current literature, there lacks a well-developed interface to enable multi-resolution simulation of vehicle, traffic, virtual environment, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. In this work, a modular and flexible interface is developed to enable multi-resolution vehicle and traffic co-simulation for CAV applications. This interface is built upon Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Real-Sim approach, can support various simulation tools and real-time X-in-the-loop (XIL) simulations, and is based on network communication protocols. The network communication delays are analyzed for simultaneous connection of up to 20 simulators. Then, two example applications are studied to demonstrate the potential usage of the Real-Sim interface: (1) a centralized merging scenario where the dynamics of two ego vehicles are emulated with detailed vehicle and powertrain dynamics models and (2) a signal-controller-in-the-loop (SCIL) evaluation where one intersection of the simulated traffic scenario is controlled by a physical signal controller. This Real-Sim interface is a tool that allows researchers to bring real, tangible hardware and software into simulated environments to comprehensively evaluate and support a wide variety of CAV applications.