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Localization and Perception for Control and Decision-Making of a Low-Speed Autonomous Shuttle in a Campus Pilot Deployment
ISSN: 2574-0741, e-ISSN: 2574-075X
Published November 12, 2018 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Wen, B., Gelbal, S., Guvenc, B., and Guvenc, L., "Localization and Perception for Control and Decision-Making of a Low-Speed Autonomous Shuttle in a Campus Pilot Deployment," SAE Intl. J CAV 1(2):53-66, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/12-01-02-0003.
Future SAE Level 4 and Level 5 autonomous vehicles (AV) will require novel applications of localization, perception, control, and artificial intelligence technology in order to offer innovative and disruptive solutions to current mobility problems. This article concentrates on low-speed autonomous shuttles that are transitioning from being tested in limited traffic, dedicated routes to being deployed as SAE Level 4 automated driving vehicles in urban environments like college campuses and outdoor shopping centers within smart cities. The Ohio State University has designated a small segment in an underserved area of the campus as an initial AV pilot test route for the deployment of low-speed autonomous shuttles. This article presents initial results of ongoing work on developing solutions to the localization and perception challenges of this planned pilot deployment. The article treats autonomous driving with Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS (Global Positioning Systems) with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), combined with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with three-dimensional light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensor, which provides solutions to scenarios where GPS is not available or a lower cost, and hence lower accuracy GPS is desirable. Our in-house automated low-speed electric vehicle is used in experimental evaluation and verification. In addition, the experimental vehicle has vehicle to everything (V2X) communication capability and utilizes a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) modem. It is able to communicate with instrumented traffic lights and with pedestrians and bicyclists with DSRC-enabled smartphones. Before real-world experiments, our connected and automated driving hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulator with real DSRC modems is used for extensive testing of the algorithms and the low-level longitudinal and lateral controllers. Real-world experiments that are reported here have been conducted in a small test area close to the Ohio State University AV pilot test route. Model-in-the-loop simulation, HiL simulation, and experimental testing are used for demonstrating the feasibility and robustness of this approach to developing and evaluating low-speed autonomous shuttle localization and perception algorithms for control and decision-making.