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Uncertainty Assessment of Octane Index Framework for Stoichiometric Knock Limits of Co-Optima Gasoline Fuel Blends
ISSN: 1946-3952, e-ISSN: 1946-3960
Published October 25, 2018 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Vuilleumier, D., Huan, X., Casey, T., and Sjöberg, M., "Uncertainty Assessment of Octane Index Framework for Stoichiometric Knock Limits of Co-Optima Gasoline Fuel Blends," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 11(3):247-270, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/04-11-03-0014.
This study evaluates the applicability of the Octane Index (OI) framework under conventional spark ignition (SI) and “beyond Research Octane Number (RON)” conditions using nine fuels operated under stoichiometric, knock-limited conditions in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, supported by Monte Carlo-type simulations which interrogate the effects of measurement uncertainty. Of the nine tested fuels, three fuels are “Tier III” fuel blends, meaning that they are blends of molecules which have passed two levels of screening, and have been evaluated to be ready for tests in research engines. These molecules have been blended into a four-component gasoline surrogate at varying volume fractions in order to achieve a RON rating of 98. The molecules under consideration are isobutanol, 2-butanol, and diisobutylene (which is a mixture of two isomers of octene). The remaining six fuels were research-grade gasolines of varying formulations.
The DISI research engine was used to measure knock limits at heated and unheated intake temperature conditions, as well as throttled and boosted intake pressures, all at an engine speed of 1400 rpm. The tested knock-limited operating conditions conceptually exist both between the Motor Octane Number (MON) and RON conditions, as well as “beyond RON” conditions (conditions which are conceptually at lower temperatures, higher pressures, or longer residence times than the RON condition). In addition to directly assessing the performance of the Tier III blends relative to other gasolines, the OI framework was evaluated with considerations of experimental uncertainty in the knock-limited combustion phasing (KL-CA50) measurements, as well as RON and MON test uncertainties. The OI was found to hold to the first order, explaining more than 80% of the knock-limited behavior, although the remaining variation in fuel performance from OI behavior was found to be beyond the likely experimental uncertainties. This indicates that the effects of specific fuel components on knock which are not captured by RON and MON ratings, and complicating the assessment of a given fuel by RON and MON ratings alone.