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AI-Based Virtual Sensing of Gaseous Pollutant Emissions at the Tailpipe of a High-Performance Vehicle

Journal Article
03-17-04-0029
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published January 09, 2024 by SAE International in United States
AI-Based Virtual Sensing of Gaseous Pollutant Emissions at the
                    Tailpipe of a High-Performance Vehicle
Sector:
Citation: Giovannardi, E., Brusa, A., Petrone, B., Cavina, N. et al., "AI-Based Virtual Sensing of Gaseous Pollutant Emissions at the Tailpipe of a High-Performance Vehicle," SAE Int. J. Engines 17(4):2024, https://doi.org/10.4271/03-17-04-0029.
Language: English

Abstract:

This scientific publication presents the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques as a virtual sensor for tailpipe emissions of CO, NOx, and HC in a high-performance vehicle. The study aims to address critical challenges faced in real industrial applications, including signal alignment and signal dynamics management. A comprehensive pre-processing pipeline is proposed to tackle these issues, and a light gradient-boosting machine (LightGBM) model is employed to estimate emissions during real driving cycles. The research compares two modeling approaches: one involving a unique “direct model” and another using a “two-stage model” which leverages distinct models for the engine and the aftertreatment. The findings suggest that the direct model strikes the best balance between simplicity and accuracy. Furthermore, the study investigates two sensor setups: a standard configuration and an optimized one, which incorporates an additional lambda probe in the exhaust line after the main catalyst. The results indicate a significant enhancement in performance for NOx and CO estimations with the introduction of the third lambda probe, while HC results remain relatively unchanged. Additionally, the AI model is tested on two different electronic control unit (ECU) software calibrations, yielding excellent results in both cases. This suggests that machine learning models are robust to control software variation and can be used to optimize software calibrations in a virtual environment, reducing the reliance on extensive experimental testing. Moreover, the AI model’s performance demonstrates compatibility with real-time implementation. In conclusion, this work establishes the viability and efficiency of AI techniques in accurately estimating tailpipe emissions from an engine in an industrial context. The study showcases the potential for AI to contribute to emission estimation and optimization processes, offering a promising pathway for an innovative industrial practice.