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Misfire Behavior and Mitigations of Passive Pre-chambers at Low-Load Operation in an Optically Accessible Gasoline Engine

Journal Article
03-15-03-0016
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published September 14, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Misfire Behavior and Mitigations of Passive Pre-chambers at Low-Load Operation in an Optically Accessible Gasoline Engine
Sector:
Citation: null
Language: English

Abstract:

An experiment has been developed to investigate the passive pre-chamber jet ignition process in gasoline engine configurations and low-load operating conditions. The apparatus adopted a modified 4-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine to enable single-cylinder operation. To reduce the complexity, the piston position was fixed at a predefined position relative to the top dead center (TDC) to simulate thermodynamic conditions at ignition and injection timings. High-speed Infrared (IR) imaging was applied to visualize the jet penetration and ignition process inside the main cylinder and to investigate the cyclic spatial variability. Two passive pre-chambers with different total nozzle areas and numbers of nozzles were used. In addition, the pre-chamber volume and pressure at ignition timing were varied to examine their effect on jet ignition performance. Misfire behavior was observed in the main chamber of all test cases, and the results suggested that the main cause is a high Residual Mass Fraction (RMF) in the pre-chamber affecting the subsequent cycle. A larger total nozzle area, smaller volume, higher pressure, and fuel-lean operation tended to mitigate the misfire behavior. For a test case with a spark pressure of 6 bar, a reduced cyclic variability in terms of coefficient of variation peak cylinder pressure (COVPmax) from 10.03% to 7.38% and combustion phasing variation from 81 crank angle degree (CAD) to 12 CAD were observed with increasing pre-chamber volume-to-area (V/A) ratio from 59.37 m to 103.11 m, but slightly higher misfire frequency was observed, from 46.67% to 50.00%, suggesting an accurate combination of pre-chamber design parameters is needed to improve overall performance at low-load operation.