Ducted Fuel Injection vs. Conventional Diesel Combustion: Extending the Load Range in an Optical Engine with a Four-Orifice Fuel Injector
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published October 20, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Nilsen, C., Biles, D., Yraguen, B., and Mueller, C., "Ducted Fuel Injection vs. Conventional Diesel Combustion: Extending the Load Range in an Optical Engine with a Four-Orifice Fuel Injector," SAE Int. J. Engines 14(1):47-58, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/03-14-01-0004.
Ducted fuel injection (DFI) is a technique to attenuate soot formation in compression ignition engines relative to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The concept is to inject fuel through a small tube inside the combustion chamber to reduce equivalence ratios in the autoignition zone relative to CDC. DFI has been studied at loads as high as 8.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPg) and as low as 2.5 bar IMEPg using a four-orifice fuel injector. Across previous studies, DFI has been shown to attenuate soot emissions, increase NOx emissions (at constant charge dilution), and slightly decrease fuel conversion efficiencies for most tested points. This study expands on the previous work by testing 1.1 bar IMEPg (low-load/idle) conditions and 10 bar IMEPg (higher-load) conditions with the same four-orifice fuel injector, as well as examining potential causes of the degradations in NOx emissions and fuel conversion efficiencies. DFI and CDC are directly compared at each operating point in the study. At the low-load condition, the intake charge dilution was swept to elucidate the soot and NOx performance of DFI. The low-load range is important because it is the target of impending, more-stringent emissions regulations, and DFI is shown to be a potentially effective approach for helping to meet these regulations. The results also indicate that DFI likely has slightly decreased fuel conversion efficiencies relative to CDC. The increase in NOx emissions with DFI is likely due to longer charge gas residence times at higher temperatures, which arise from shorter combustion durations and advanced combustion phasing relative to CDC.