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Development of a 3D-CFD Model for a Full Optical High-Pressure Dual-Fuel Engine
- Journal Article
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published January 27, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Frankl, S. and Gleis, S., "Development of a 3D-CFD Model for a Full Optical High-Pressure Dual-Fuel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 13(2):2020.
In times of ever stricter exhaust emission regulations, the importance of alternative combustion processes in internal combustion engines continues to grow. One approach to create a combustion progress which produces low CO2, soot, and methane emissions is the “High-Pressure Dual-Fuel” (HPDF)-combustion. Here, the direct-injected methane is ignited by a small amount of pilot-diesel and burns in a diffusive combustion mode.
This study describes the development of a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) model for the HPDF-combustion. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with k-epsilon modelling for turbulence was chosen for the calculation of the flow field. The pilot fuel injection is implemented by using Lagrangian Particle Methods, whereas the gas injection is a mass flow boundary which is derived from measurements of the injector. The model is validated using data from a fully optically accessible single-cylinder research engine. The flow field is compared with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data taken before the start of injection (SOI). Concerning pilot injection, a grid convergence study is conducted and an optimization is developed to reduce computational costs. The penetration length of the liquid fuel spray is validated against Mie-scattering images which are taken during the “Pilot-Diesel-only” experiments in the fully optical single-cylinder research engine.
The ignition and combustion is modeled via detailed chemistry, which is solved using the commercial Software CONVERGE and the SAGE chemistry solver. The flame liftoff length of the pilot-diesel and the ignition and combustion of the underexpanded gas jets are validated using high-speed imaging of flame luminosity and OH* chemiluminescence. It can be shown that the used n-heptane mechanism is capable of correctly reproducing the trends in the ignition and combustion process.